Trump nominates Jay Clayton chairman of the SEC -statement

Trump nominates Jay Clayton chairman of the SEC -statement

WASHINGTON, Jan 4 (Reuters) – President-elect Donald Trump said on Wednesday he intends to nominate Jay Clayton, a partner with law firm Sullivan & Cromwell LLP, as chairman of the Securities and Exchange Commission.
“Jay Clayton is a highly talented expert on many aspects of financial and regulatory law, and he will ensure our financial institutions can thrive and create jobs while playing by the rules at the same time,” Trump in a statement. “We need to undo many regulations which have stifled investment in American businesses, and restore oversight of the financial industry in a way that does not harm American workers.”

Some people believe that humans

Although every society has a specific culture, there are certain elements of culture that are universal. They are known as cultural universals, in which there are certain behavioral traits and patterns that are shared by all cultures around the world. For instance, classifying relations based on blood relations and marriage, differentiating between good and bad, having some form of art, use of jewelry, classifying people according to gender and age, etc., are common in all cultures of the world.

Some people believe that humans are the only living beings who have a culture. But, there is a group of people who believe in the existence of culture even in animals. It is said that animals have certain social rules which they teach their young ones as a medium for survival.

Culture is necessary to establish an order in the society. It is not only a means of communication between people, but also creates a feeling of belonging and togetherness among people in the society.

Culture rules virtually every aspect of your life and like most people, you are completely unaware of this. If asked, you would likely define culture as music, literature, visual arts, architecture or language, and you wouldn’t be wrong. But you wouldn’t be entirely right either. In effect, the things produced by a culture which we perceive with our five senses are simply manifestations of the deeper meaning of culture – what we do, think and feel. Culture is taught and learned and shared – there is no culture of one. Finally, culture is symbolic. Meaning is ascribed to behaviour, words and objects and this meaning is objectively arbitrary, subjectively logical and rational. For example, a “home”, is a physical structure, a familial construct and a moral reference point – which is distinct from one culture to another.

Culture is vital because it enables its members to function one with another without the need to negotiate meaning at every moment. Culture is learned and forgotten, so despite its importance we are generally unconscious of its influence on the manner in which we perceive the world and interact within it.






Culture shock is a condition that affects people who travel to a country different from their own. The term describes a traveller’s feelings of bewilderment when the environment and culture change from the one that he or she is familiar with. The unfamiliar surroundings, foreign language and strange habits of a new country can all contribute to culture shock. Culture shock is not just suffered by those who travel and live abroad. Any change in surroundings can bring about the feeling of culture shock. If a person leaves home for the first time and goes to college, then the new environment and new experiences may be a shock to the system.

Although culture shock is a state of mind, it can result in many symptoms, both physical and mental. Anyone who has moved from home for the first time or to a new city is probably familiar with the immediate feeling of bewilderment and sometimes loss. Sadness and loss, however temporary, are only natural when living in a new place far from home. The mind needs time to familiarize itself with new surroundings and new ways of life.

Some people experience physical symptoms due to culture shock. They may feel ill or suffer from sleeplessness or mood swings. Although homesickness is considered a state of mind, it can bring about symptoms such as irritability and a short temper when confronted with confusion over a new culture.

If living in a new country, the best way to deal with culture shock is to integrate slowly. Be aware that everyday tasks may be completely different from the way they were back home. A simple task such as ordering a meal in a restaurant may require learning a whole set of new social skills. The feeling of excitement upon entering a new country can soon dissipate as a whole new set of life skills must be acquired.

You may have thought you saw grapes

You may have thought you saw grapes, but what you really saw was different. Some Alien playing a trick? Hypnotism? But not grapes!

Does this sound like some group of scientists opposing challenging theories and experimental results? Does this show a lack of open-mindedness? Does it mean that consistency with other knowledge is not a guarantee of truth?

It appears that consistency with other knowledge is an essential of something being true, if we take knowledge to mean that it is true. However, what we claim as knowledge now, might not be what we claim in a 100 years time. Therefore what we now think is knowledge might be false.

We can trust our judgements on the truth of sense experiences, intuitions, and evaluation of information if we do this in the right conditions and if our observations accord with fact and knowledge.



Everyone talks about their culture with very high regard. Culture is an integral part of every society. It is a learned pattern of behavior and ways in which a person lives his or her life. Culture is essential for the existence of a society, because it binds people together

According to English Anthropologist Edward B. Taylor, culture is that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, law, morals, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society.

Culture is something that a person learns from his family and surroundings, and is not ingrained in him from birth. It does not have any biological connection because even if a person is brought up in a culture different from that in which he was born, he imbibes the culture of the society where he grows up.

Culture is a complex tool which every individual has to learn to survive in a society. It is the means through which people interact with others in the society. It acts in a subconscious way and whatever we see and perceive, seems to be normal and natural. Sometimes, other societies and people seem to be a little odd because they have a different culture from ours. We must remember that every society has a distinct culture that forms the backbone of the society. Culture does not remain stagnant, it is evolving constantly and is in fact influenced by the other cultures and societies.

Every society has a different culture, where people share a specific language, traditions, behaviors, perceptions and beliefs. Culture gives them an identity which makes them unique and different from people of other cultures. When people of different cultures migrate and settle in another society, the culture of that society becomes the dominant culture and those of the immigrants form the subculture of the community. Usually, people who settle in other nations imbibe the new culture, while at the same time strive to preserve their own.


them and not for others! A much less able public speaker, or even one who might never have spoken in public might be a much better teacher. The point is that knowing that and knowing how are two different kinds of knowledge!

In philosophy, knowing that something is the case implies that what is known is true. Can we sensibly say that someone knows something, but it isn’t true? We cannot know that something is the case unless we are able to show that it is also true.



There are three ways we might say that something is true:

  1. It is self-evident.
  2. It accords with the facts.
  3. It is consistent with our knowledge and reasoning.



To know something is the case without reasoning or using sense experience is to use intuition. For example, in ‘a straight line is the shortest line that can be drawn connecting two points,’ we do not imagine every possible scenario, let alone observe every case, nor do we use reason. It is something we intuitively know as true. (Even if it isn’t true in all mathematical systems!) Likewise, if we recognise something as great art, then we may not be able to categorise every reason that makes it great art. Similarly, in English, no one can state the rules for the use of the word ‘the’ in every case, but native speakers intuitively know what is right.

However, have you ever refused to do something because you were afraid? Have you ever felt that something could be so good for you that you jumped in without thinking? Aren’t some things which are so obvious at the time, later considered rash and misguided? Does this mean that intuition depends on using reason to dispel the irrational?

Intuition is a clear, certain and immediate knowledge that something is so. Some types of intuition, such as knowing that a given artifact is a valuable antique may require that we know about antiques. So other types of knowledge are important. Reason is necessary for an intuition. This does not mean that the intuition is arrived at by reasoning, simply that reason is needed to support intuition or to eliminate barriers to intuition.



Suppose you all landed on Mars, a dusty dead planet. You see a bunch of grapes growing on a vine. You look away, and look back and they are still there. You eat one, and carry out various tests, all proving that there is a bunch of grapes growing on a vine. You can see and experience the grapes. You involve others and they all see the grapes and have the same experiences. Do you conclude that there is a vine with grapes growing on Mars, a dead planet with no water, or what? The evidence accords with the facts.

So back to Earth you go. ‘How was Mars,’ they say and you tell them about the grapes. What is their reaction? They say, “Vines grow on soil with water. You didn’t see any grapes or a vine.”

And are they right? Yes. These observations are so inconsistent with our knowledge that they just aren’t acceptable. No water, no grapes!



When we talk about knowledge what we mean is knowledge about some object. Informally, knowledge is a description of the state of some object. The object may be either physical or abstract. Some examples of abstract objects include love, hate, memory, the future, and even knowledge itself. We naively believe that our knowledge of reality is direct, but this is a mistake. Our experience with physical objects is actually indirect. We do not directly mentally experience physical objects; we mentally experience only our concepts of them.

Knowledge can be defined as a relation between two or more concepts, where concepts are mental objects. But these concepts do not exist apart from a conceptualizer, an intelligent being. Thus human knowledge is subjective and has no absolute meaning.

Knowledge is very much like sound and colour. When a tree falls in the forest it is assumed to make a lot of sound waves, but if there is no creature nearby capable of hearing, then it makes no sound. Likewise, when light reflects off an object it produces characteristic wavelengths of light, but neither the object nor the light are colored in themselves. Color exists in the mind of the perceiver. Color and sound are the brain’s method of making sense out of external signals picked-up by our sensory organs. Knowledge does not exist without a knower, and there is no such thing as “unknown” knowledge.

Human knowledge is a subjective means of coming to grips with the world. As far as we can prove, human knowledge never captures the essence of reality; it merely characterizes it according to our own purposes.

Knowledge certainly exists for it is an invention of man. It serves man by offering a metaphorical and subjective characterization of the “known” world. Human knowledge has no absolute status for it is founded on arbitrary definitions. If we change our definitions, we change the way we characterize the world, though presumably the world remains unchanged. That knowledge has no absolute foundation to man is the inevitable result of the pluralistic nature of the world. In a sense, though, knowledge can be said to be “true” when it is understood that knowledge represents the appearance of the world rather than the “real” world itself. Logic has its value as a limited means of gaining knowledge about the world.

In normal conversation we use knowledge to mean:

  • Knowing that (facts and information)
  • Knowing how (the ability to do something)

Sometimes, we use the word knowledge to mean that we have some information, we know that Mary drinks lemonade, for example. When we have this type of knowledge then we are able to express it. I cannot say that I know when the Battle of Hastings took place, if I cannot, under any circumstances, say the date! This is not true of knowing how.

If I know how to swim, then when placed in the water I make certain movements and do not sink! However, I may be unable to say how, exactly, I am able to swim. Knowing how does not mean I know that … If I cannot say the date of the Battle of Hastings, I cannot be said to know it. But if, while swimming, I cannot tell you exactly how I do it, you cannot say I don’t know how to swim!

Failing to understand the above can lead us into certain fallacies. If we get instruction from the best public speaker  in the world, it does not mean that because he or she can speak excellently, that they know how to instruct others. They might be able to say what they do. For example they might say how they practice. But this might work for

No one should denounce a political opponent as evil and illegitimate, just because they have different views.

No one should denounce a political opponent as evil and illegitimate, just because they have different views.

People should question the decisions of the government, but not reject the government’s authority.

Every group has the right to practice its culture and to have some control over its own affairs, but each group should accept that it is a part of a democratic state.

When you express your opinion, you should also listen to the views of other people, even people you disagree with.  Everyone has a right to be heard.

Don’t be so convinced of the rightness of your views that you refuse to see any merit in another position. Consider different interests and points of view.

When you make demands, you should understand that in a democracy, it is impossible for everyone to achieve everything they want.

Democracy requires compromise.  Groups with different interests and opinions must be willing to sit down with one another and negotiate.

In a democracy, one group does not always win everything it wants.  Different combinations of groups win on different issues.  Over time, everyone wins something.

If one group is always excluded and fails to be heard, it may turn against democracy in anger and frustration.

Everyone who is willing to participate peacefully and respect the rights of others should have some say in the way the country is governed.

The balance between these rights and duties varies from state to state and from time to time. For example, in times of war, the duties expected by your state may far outweigh the rights and liberties received at the same time; though when peace returns, the situation may be reversed. This was true during the Second World War from 1939 to 1945 and during the Cold War in the 1950s when many Britons were obligated to serve for their nation, though war time patriotism generally made this a duty that many were willing to accept.

The exact balance between rights, liberties and duties is always changing, and it is a matter that citizens in particular societies at different times choose to resolve either by negotiation or sometimes conflict. Citizenship implies that everybody has access to the same rights and is protected by the same laws.















You have the right to have your own beliefs, and to say and write what you think.

No one can tell you what you must think, believe, and say or not say.

There is freedom of religion.  Everyone is free to choose their own religion and to worship and practice their religion as they see fit.

Every individual has the right to enjoy their own culture, along with other members of their group, even if their group is a minority.

There is freedom and pluralism in the mass media.

You can choose between different sources of news and opinions to read in the newspapers, to hear on the radio, and to watch on television.

You have the right to associate with other people, and to form and join organizations of your own choice, including trade unions.

You are free to move about the country, and if you wish, to leave the country.

You have the right to assemble freely, and to protest government actions.

However, everyone has an obligation to exercise these rights peacefully, with respect for the law and for the rights of others.

Democracy is a system of rule by laws, not by individuals.

In a democracy, the rule of law protects the rights of citizens, maintains order, and limits the power of government.

All citizens are equal under the law.  No one may be discriminated against on the basis of their race, religion, ethnic group, or gender.

No one may be arrested, imprisoned, or exiled arbitrarily.

If you are detained, you have the right to know the charges against you, and to be presumed innocent until proven guilty according to the law.

Anyone charged with a crime has the right to a fair, speedy, and public trial by an impartial court.

No one may be taxed or prosecuted except by a law established in advance.

No one is above the law, not even a king or an elected president.

The law is fairly, impartially, and consistently enforced, by courts that are independent of the other branches of government.

Torture and cruel and inhumane treatment are absolutely forbidden.

The rule of law places limits on the power of government. No government official may violate these limits.

No ruler, minister, or political party can tell a judge how to decide a case.

Office holders cannot use their power to enrich themselves.  Independent courts and commissions punish corruption, no matter who is guilty.

If democracy is to work, citizens must not only participate and exercise their rights.  They must also observe certain principles and rules of democratic conduct.

People must respect the law and reject violence.  Nothing ever justifies using violence against your political opponents, just because you disagree with them.

Every citizen must respect the rights of his or her fellow citizens, and their dignity as human beings.

In a democracy, every citizen has certain basic rights that the state cannot take away from them.

Elected representatives at the national and local levels should listen to the people and respond to their needs and suggestions.

Elections have to occur at regular intervals, as prescribed by law.  Those in power cannot extend their terms in office without asking for the consent of the people again in an election.

For elections to be free and fair, they have to be administered by a neutral, fair, and professional body that treats all political parties and candidates equally.

All parties and candidates must have the right to campaign freely, to present their proposals to the voters both directly and through the mass media.

Voters must be able to vote in secret, free of intimidation and violence.

Independent observers must be able to observe the voting and the process must be free of corruption, intimidation, and fraud.

There needs to be some impartial and independent tribunal to resolve any disputes about the election results.

This is why it takes a lot of time to organize a good, democratic election.

Any country can hold an election, but for an election to be free and fair requires a lot of organization, preparation, and training of political parties, electoral officials, and civil society organizations who monitor the process.

The key role of citizens in a democracy is to participate in public life. Citizens have an obligation to become informed about public issues, to watch carefully how their political leaders and representatives use their powers, and to express their own opinions and interests.

Voting in elections is another important civic duty of all citizens. But to vote wisely, each citizen should listen to the views of the different parties and candidates, and then make his or her own decision on whom to support.

Participation can also involve campaigning for a political party or candidate, standing as a candidate for political office, debating public issues, attending community meetingsand membership civic meetings, bably best placed in Article 5 on the Judicial Authority.materials ency Council, and even protesting.

A vital form of participation comes through active membership in independent, non-governmental organizations, what we call “civil society.”

These organizations represent a variety of interests and beliefs:  farmers, workers, doctors, teachers, business owners, religious believers, women, students, human rights activists.

In a democracy, participation in civic groups should be voluntary.  No one should be forced to join an organization against their will.

Political parties are vital organizations in a democracy, and democracy is stronger when citizens become active members of political parties.

However, no one should support a political party because he is pressured or threatened by others.  In a democracy, citizens are free to choose which party to support.

Democracy depends on citizen participation in all these ways.  But participation must be peaceful, respectful of the law, and tolerant of the different views of other groups and individuals.

In a democracy, every citizen has certain basic rights that the state cannot take away from them.


Democracy is

impulses) to emerge and control their lives. Thus, law acts as a guardian against the inevitable anarchy that would engulf humanity.

On the other hand, we have those who believe that mankind is naturally good, and it is the external forces that surround us that are completely responsible for any wrong doing that takes place – for instance, the government.

Augustine’s assertion that law was a natural necessity to curb man’s sinful nature held the field for many centuries. But the belief that man’s nature might be corrupt and sinful has been at times weighed against the belief that man posses a natural virtue which is capable of development. Leaning heavily upon Aristotle’s conception of the natural development of the state from man’s social impulses, Aquinas held that the state was not necessary evil but was a natural foundation in the development of human welfare.

It is fact, that even in the simplest of societies, some form of legal rule and guidance is without doubt needed to control the anarchist like environment – which ironically counteracts the entire purpose of a lawless society.










Democracy consists of four basic elements:

  1. A political system for choosing and replacing the government through free and fair elections.
  1. The active participation of the people, as citizens, in politics and civic life.
  2. Protection of the human rights of all citizens.
  3. A rule of law, in which the laws and procedures apply equally to all citizens.

Democracy is a means for the people to choose their leaders and to hold their leaders accountable for their policies and their conduct in office.

The people decide who will represent them in parliament, and who will head the government at the national and local levels.  They do so by choosing between competing parties in regular, free and fair elections.

Government is based on the consent of the governed.

In a democracy, the people are sovereign—they are the highest form of political authority.

Power flows from the people to the leaders of government, who hold power only temporarily.

Laws and policies require majority support in parliament, but the rights of minorities are protected in various ways.

The people are free to criticize their elected leaders and representatives, and to observe how they conduct the business of government.

Law is a system


Law is a system of rules a society sets to maintain order and protect persons and property from harm. Law is ancient, dating back at least to the Code of Hammurabi, written by an ancient Babylonian king around 1760 BC. Today, most countries have tens or hundreds of thousands of pages of law. Laws are enforced by the police, supported by the court and prison systems.

A law is the product of the social conditions at the time it is made. The law is not static. Just as relationships between people or between people and the Government are not fixed permanently, so the law changes by responding to the current social and political values of the dominant culture. As societies become more complex so does the law.

We hold from God the gift which includes all others. This gift is life — physical, intellectual, and moral life. But life cannot maintain itself alone. The Creator of life has entrusted us with the responsibility of preserving, developing, and perfecting it. In order that we may accomplish this, He has provided us with a collection of marvelous faculties. And He has put us in the midst of a variety of natural resources. By the application of our faculties to these natural resources we convert them into products, and use them. This process is necessary in order that life may run its appointed course.

Life, faculties, production — in other words, individuality, liberty, property — this is man. These three gifts from God precede all human legislation, and are superior to it. Life, liberty, and property do not exist because men have made laws. On the contrary, it was the fact that life, liberty, and property existed beforehand that caused men to make laws in the first place.

What is law? It is the collective organization of the individual right to lawful defense. Each of us has a natural right — from God — to defend his person, his liberty, and his property. These are the three basic requirements of life, and the preservation of any one of them is completely dependent upon the preservation of the other two. For what are our faculties but the extension of our individuality? And what is property but an extension of our faculties? If every person has the right to defend even by force — his person, his liberty, and his property, then it follows that a group of men have the right to organize and support a common force to protect these rights constantly. Thus the principle of collective right — its reason for existing, its lawfulness — is based on individual right. And the common force that protects this collective right cannot logically have any other purpose or any other mission than that for which it acts as a substitute. Thus, since an individual cannot lawfully use force against the person, liberty, or property of another individual, then the common force — for the same reason — cannot lawfully be used to destroy the person, liberty, or property of individuals or groups.

Force has been given to us to defend our own individual rights. Who will dare to say that force has been given to us to destroy the equal rights of others? Since no individual acting separately can lawfully use force to destroy the rights of others, does it not logically follow that the same principle also applies to the common force that is nothing more than the organized combination of the individual forces?

If this is true, then nothing can be more evident than this: The law is the organization of the natural right of lawful defense. It is the substitution of a common force for individual forces. And this common force is to do only what the individual forces have a natural and lawful right to do: to protect persons, liberties, and properties; to maintain the right of each, and to cause justice to reign over us all.

Laws are guidelines that set out appropriate behaviour that has been developed over time, and are based on moral beliefs, a human condition that sets out a purpose that society in general is required to fulfill. Without the fulfillment of these desired tasks, man simply will become equal to animals – or worse still, allow their darker sides (or