You may have thought you saw grapes

You may have thought you saw grapes, but what you really saw was different. Some Alien playing a trick? Hypnotism? But not grapes!

Does this sound like some group of scientists opposing challenging theories and experimental results? Does this show a lack of open-mindedness? Does it mean that consistency with other knowledge is not a guarantee of truth?

It appears that consistency with other knowledge is an essential of something being true, if we take knowledge to mean that it is true. However, what we claim as knowledge now, might not be what we claim in a 100 years time. Therefore what we now think is knowledge might be false.

We can trust our judgements on the truth of sense experiences, intuitions, and evaluation of information if we do this in the right conditions and if our observations accord with fact and knowledge.



Everyone talks about their culture with very high regard. Culture is an integral part of every society. It is a learned pattern of behavior and ways in which a person lives his or her life. Culture is essential for the existence of a society, because it binds people together

According to English Anthropologist Edward B. Taylor, culture is that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, law, morals, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society.

Culture is something that a person learns from his family and surroundings, and is not ingrained in him from birth. It does not have any biological connection because even if a person is brought up in a culture different from that in which he was born, he imbibes the culture of the society where he grows up.

Culture is a complex tool which every individual has to learn to survive in a society. It is the means through which people interact with others in the society. It acts in a subconscious way and whatever we see and perceive, seems to be normal and natural. Sometimes, other societies and people seem to be a little odd because they have a different culture from ours. We must remember that every society has a distinct culture that forms the backbone of the society. Culture does not remain stagnant, it is evolving constantly and is in fact influenced by the other cultures and societies.

Every society has a different culture, where people share a specific language, traditions, behaviors, perceptions and beliefs. Culture gives them an identity which makes them unique and different from people of other cultures. When people of different cultures migrate and settle in another society, the culture of that society becomes the dominant culture and those of the immigrants form the subculture of the community. Usually, people who settle in other nations imbibe the new culture, while at the same time strive to preserve their own.


them and not for others! A much less able public speaker, or even one who might never have spoken in public might be a much better teacher. The point is that knowing that and knowing how are two different kinds of knowledge!

In philosophy, knowing that something is the case implies that what is known is true. Can we sensibly say that someone knows something, but it isn’t true? We cannot know that something is the case unless we are able to show that it is also true.



There are three ways we might say that something is true:

  1. It is self-evident.
  2. It accords with the facts.
  3. It is consistent with our knowledge and reasoning.



To know something is the case without reasoning or using sense experience is to use intuition. For example, in ‘a straight line is the shortest line that can be drawn connecting two points,’ we do not imagine every possible scenario, let alone observe every case, nor do we use reason. It is something we intuitively know as true. (Even if it isn’t true in all mathematical systems!) Likewise, if we recognise something as great art, then we may not be able to categorise every reason that makes it great art. Similarly, in English, no one can state the rules for the use of the word ‘the’ in every case, but native speakers intuitively know what is right.

However, have you ever refused to do something because you were afraid? Have you ever felt that something could be so good for you that you jumped in without thinking? Aren’t some things which are so obvious at the time, later considered rash and misguided? Does this mean that intuition depends on using reason to dispel the irrational?

Intuition is a clear, certain and immediate knowledge that something is so. Some types of intuition, such as knowing that a given artifact is a valuable antique may require that we know about antiques. So other types of knowledge are important. Reason is necessary for an intuition. This does not mean that the intuition is arrived at by reasoning, simply that reason is needed to support intuition or to eliminate barriers to intuition.



Suppose you all landed on Mars, a dusty dead planet. You see a bunch of grapes growing on a vine. You look away, and look back and they are still there. You eat one, and carry out various tests, all proving that there is a bunch of grapes growing on a vine. You can see and experience the grapes. You involve others and they all see the grapes and have the same experiences. Do you conclude that there is a vine with grapes growing on Mars, a dead planet with no water, or what? The evidence accords with the facts.

So back to Earth you go. ‘How was Mars,’ they say and you tell them about the grapes. What is their reaction? They say, “Vines grow on soil with water. You didn’t see any grapes or a vine.”

And are they right? Yes. These observations are so inconsistent with our knowledge that they just aren’t acceptable. No water, no grapes!

No one should denounce a political opponent as evil and illegitimate, just because they have different views.

No one should denounce a political opponent as evil and illegitimate, just because they have different views.

People should question the decisions of the government, but not reject the government’s authority.

Every group has the right to practice its culture and to have some control over its own affairs, but each group should accept that it is a part of a democratic state.

When you express your opinion, you should also listen to the views of other people, even people you disagree with.  Everyone has a right to be heard.

Don’t be so convinced of the rightness of your views that you refuse to see any merit in another position. Consider different interests and points of view.

When you make demands, you should understand that in a democracy, it is impossible for everyone to achieve everything they want.

Democracy requires compromise.  Groups with different interests and opinions must be willing to sit down with one another and negotiate.

In a democracy, one group does not always win everything it wants.  Different combinations of groups win on different issues.  Over time, everyone wins something.

If one group is always excluded and fails to be heard, it may turn against democracy in anger and frustration.

Everyone who is willing to participate peacefully and respect the rights of others should have some say in the way the country is governed.

The balance between these rights and duties varies from state to state and from time to time. For example, in times of war, the duties expected by your state may far outweigh the rights and liberties received at the same time; though when peace returns, the situation may be reversed. This was true during the Second World War from 1939 to 1945 and during the Cold War in the 1950s when many Britons were obligated to serve for their nation, though war time patriotism generally made this a duty that many were willing to accept.

The exact balance between rights, liberties and duties is always changing, and it is a matter that citizens in particular societies at different times choose to resolve either by negotiation or sometimes conflict. Citizenship implies that everybody has access to the same rights and is protected by the same laws.













Democracy is

impulses) to emerge and control their lives. Thus, law acts as a guardian against the inevitable anarchy that would engulf humanity.

On the other hand, we have those who believe that mankind is naturally good, and it is the external forces that surround us that are completely responsible for any wrong doing that takes place – for instance, the government.

Augustine’s assertion that law was a natural necessity to curb man’s sinful nature held the field for many centuries. But the belief that man’s nature might be corrupt and sinful has been at times weighed against the belief that man posses a natural virtue which is capable of development. Leaning heavily upon Aristotle’s conception of the natural development of the state from man’s social impulses, Aquinas held that the state was not necessary evil but was a natural foundation in the development of human welfare.

It is fact, that even in the simplest of societies, some form of legal rule and guidance is without doubt needed to control the anarchist like environment – which ironically counteracts the entire purpose of a lawless society.










Democracy consists of four basic elements:

  1. A political system for choosing and replacing the government through free and fair elections.
  1. The active participation of the people, as citizens, in politics and civic life.
  2. Protection of the human rights of all citizens.
  3. A rule of law, in which the laws and procedures apply equally to all citizens.

Democracy is a means for the people to choose their leaders and to hold their leaders accountable for their policies and their conduct in office.

The people decide who will represent them in parliament, and who will head the government at the national and local levels.  They do so by choosing between competing parties in regular, free and fair elections.

Government is based on the consent of the governed.

In a democracy, the people are sovereign—they are the highest form of political authority.

Power flows from the people to the leaders of government, who hold power only temporarily.

Laws and policies require majority support in parliament, but the rights of minorities are protected in various ways.

The people are free to criticize their elected leaders and representatives, and to observe how they conduct the business of government.


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he Arctic hare

he Arctic hare mates between April and May. Males may box with their front legs over a female. Babies are born in late May through July. Young are born later in the northernmost part of the hare’s range.

The female builds a nest in a depression in the ground, usually behind some rocks or behind a bush. She lines it with grass and her fur. She gives birth to between two to eight young. The mother will stay with the babies for the first couple of days. The young can protect themselves after that by remaining motionless among the rocks or vegetation, making it hard for predators like the wolf, lynx and Arctic fox to spot them.

When the babies are two to three weeks old, they will start to leave the nest, coming back only to nurse. Groups of up to 20 young hares may gather at one time to nurse. They are fully weaned when they are about eight to nine weeks old.

Formulas for estimating percentage of pet-owning households and pet population in your community

Most communities do not have data on the number of households that own dogs, cats, birds, or horses, nor do they have data on the numbers of these pets in their communities. The following formulas can be used to estimate the number of pet-owning households and pet populations in your community.

These formulas will give you an approximation of the number of pet-owning households and pet populations. These formulas assume that the demographics and rates of pet ownership in your community are similar to national, state and regional demographics and rates of pet ownership. However, because these formulas use sample survey data, they should not be considered 100% accurate.

To use the formulas below you need to know the total number of households in the community in which you are estimating. If you only know the population of the community, you can estimate the number of households by dividing the population of the community by the average number of members per household. In 2011, the U.S. Census Bureau’s Current Population Survey estimated that there were 2.6 members per household.